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Augmented Reality is a specialization of computer vision that attempts to extract the 3D structure of a scene from video and then insert with high precision virtual or 3D objects into the scene. AR can be useful in many applications including entertainment, heads-up displays, tourism and surgical visualization.
Consider for example visiting a foreign country and not having a map. If you want directions to your hotel from any location in the city then you can just take a photo with your cell phone camera and using the phone’s build-in AR software determine your location; the AR software would then retrieve directions wirelessly from a large database and present them to you by annotating the original photo. Another application would be retrieving information about a historical monument that you are looking at. An example of AR is shown in the following video from related research at the University of British Columbia.